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ROUND DIAMONDS
When selecting a diamond, your first priority is usually to choose a shape. If you’re unsure of what shape to choose, it may be helpful to know this: round diamonds are by far the most popular choice due to their incredible brilliance, fire, and light performance. Round brilliant diamonds make up about three-quarters of all diamond purchases, and offer maximum sparkle.
 
FANCY SHAPES
Princess diamonds feature an angular, contemporary beauty that looks gorgeous in classic and geometric settings, and are second in popularity, offering the brilliance of a round brilliant diamond at a lower price. Cushion diamonds are an ideal choice for vintage-inspired settings, and radiant diamonds are a stunning alternative to princess and cushion diamonds for those preferring a rectangular shape. Asscher and emerald diamonds are step-cut, for a sleek, elegant appearance. They emit less fire or sparkle than round diamonds but are more transparent. Marquise, oval, and pear-shaped diamonds are more distinctive shapes, and help fingers look long and slender due to their elongated appearance. Heart-shaped diamonds express your sentiment with a flourish and are often favored by die-hard romantics. Marquise or pear-shaped diamonds may appear to be larger, given that more of the stone shows from the top view (looking down on the diamond).
 
 
CHOOSE A SIZE – CARAT WEIGHT
The final set of considerations involves two main factors: the size of your gem and its quality. When selecting your perfect diamond, determine what is most important to you within your given budget – size, quality, or a tradeoff between the two. Many people start with size, as this is the most visually apparent aspect of a diamond. Keep in mind that a carat is actually a unit of weight, but it can be used as an approximation for the size of a diamond. You may find the measurements of a diamond another useful indication of the actual dimensions, as seen face up.
Size is the most visible factor that determines the value of all diamond types. The price of the diamond rises exponentially depending on its size.

By definition, 1 carat is 200 milligram. Since most diamonds sold in the market weigh less than 1 carat, the carat is usually subdivided into "points". There are 100 points in a single carat. So, a diamond weighing 3/4 carat would be a "75 point diamond".

1 carat = 200 milligrams = 100 points.

Carat weight is not a factor that denotes diamond quality. While some of the other quality metrics have more bearing in the quality of specific types of diamonds, carat merely denotes the size of a diamond, by its weight. Diamonds of 0.50 - 0.75 carat are very popular for their size and value. Large diamonds are rarer to find in mines than small ones and thus large diamond types are much more valuable.
 
CUT
The most important quality characteristic of a round brilliant diamond is the cut, which impacts the brilliance, fire, and scintillation of the diamond. If the workmanship and cut of a diamond are poor, the diamond will look dull and lifeless. With round brilliant diamonds, the cut is easy to assess because it is formally graded by independent diamond laboratories. For other diamond shapes, the cut is much more subjective. Cut grades, if given, are more arbitrary. For engagement rings, we typically recommend round brilliant diamonds with a cut grade of very good, ideal, or super ideal. Choosing a high cut grade maximizes the beauty of a diamond for a given carat weight.
 COLOR
The other main quality characteristics to decide are the color and clarity of your diamond. Although individuals vary in their ability to observe color differences, most people prefer a colorless or white diamond, or at least a color that is not very detectable to the untrained eye. With engagement rings, the most common color grade selection for the center diamond is F-H color.
CLARITY
The clarity of a diamond is gauged using the differentiators below. With clarity, the types of diamond are gauged depending on the quantity and visibility of flaws.

FL - Completely Flawless.

IF (Internally Flawless) - The external flaws can be removed by further polishing.

VVS1 - VVS2 (Very Very Slightly Included) - Only an expert can detect flaws with a 10X microscope. By definition, if an expert can see a flaw from the top of the diamond, it is a VVS2. If the expert can only detect flaws while viewing the bottom of the stone, then it is a VVS1.

VVS1 clarity diamonds do not have any internal black marks. Then they also fall in the "No Black" category.

VS1 - VS2 (Very Slightly Included) - Flaws are visible with a 10X microscope, but it is not obvious (takes more than 10 seconds to identify the flaws).

SI1 - SI2 (Slightly Included) - Flaws are readily visible with a 10X microscope.

I1 - I3 (Included) - Flaws are eminently visible and can be found with the naked eye.
 At-Home Diamond Care
If you wear your diamond jewelry every day, you should clean it once a week. Ultrasonic cleaners are convenient and effective. However, you should avoid using an ultrasonic cleaner if your diamond has a serious crack or inclusion. The vibrations of these cleaners may enlarge such flaws.
If you choose not to use an ultrasonic cleaner, clean your diamond jewelry with a soft-bristled toothbrush and a clean liquid detergent. Rinse with fresh water and dry polish with a chamois or microfiber cloth.
Keep your diamonds looking new by following Diamond Do's and Don'ts:
  • DO store your diamond jewelry separately in your jewelry box. Since diamonds scratch other diamonds, and can also scratch pearls and other gemstones, the optimum way to store diamonds is alone or in a soft pouch.
  • DON'T wear your diamond jewelry while doing activities like household chores, gardening or sports.  If you do, make sure your jeweler checks your item for loose or broken prongs regularly.
  • DO take your ring in for inspection and professional cleaning at least twice a year.
  • DON'T wear your diamond jewelry while applying lotions, makeup, hair sprays or perfumes. These chemicals can dull the sparkle of your diamond jewelry.>
  • DO insure your diamonds against loss or theft. A diamond engagement ring is an investment of both money and emotion. Your insurance company can provide a rider to cover any costly items such as an engagement ring or other diamond jewelry.